Wednesday, July 1, 2015

My “Maury Povich Moment” with DNA

 
Three of 11 children of Bill & Sarah Partee Reed: Jimmy, John Ella, and Pleas Reed
Tate County, Mississippi

To date, June 2015 will go down in genealogy history as the month that I had the most discoveries, all within 30 days. I won’t go into details about all of them in this blog post. However, I will reveal my first one, which has still left me in utter shock. Not only that, this discovery has led to other mouth-dropping discoveries that I will present. Therefore, in an effort not to write an extremely long blog post and for better flow of information, I will present this discovery in four parts. Part 1 is what led to it all.

Part 1: Who’s the Daddy?

The father of my mother’s paternal grandmother, Sarah Partee Reed (1852-1923), has been a mystery for me for over 20 years! For years, I speculated that a man named James Partee, born c. 1825 in Virginia, may have been her father, although Grandma Sarah (or someone) reported to the census-takers that her father was born in Tennessee. I even wrote this August 30, 2013 blog post about my speculation of James Partee. In my mind, I had always pictured that her father was another person enslaved on Squire B. Partee’s plantation near Como, Mississippi. I was wrong as two left shoes!

Little did I know, family elders provided great clues all along, but I failed to see the answer. Let me briefly take you back to July 1994, the day I met the late Cousin Isaac “Ike” Deberry Sr., my mother’s eldest paternal first cousin, at the Reed & Puryear Family Reunion in Senatobia, Mississippi. At the time, he was 80 years old, and I was a college youngster deeply interested in my family roots. Cousin Ike was practically raised by his maternal grandparents, Bill & Sarah Reed. That day, during my conversation with him, he claimed that Grandpa Bill Reed (1846-1937) had two sisters named Louvenia Hunter and Hattie Whiting who came with him to Mississippi from South Carolina right after slavery. I soon learned that Grandpa Bill arrived in northern Mississippi from Abbeville, South Carolina in 1866. I was very excited because I now had more clues to take my research further.

During my next trip to the Mississippi Department of Archives & History in Jackson, I searched for those alleged sisters in the census records. My findings didn’t completely jive with what Cousin Isaac Deberry had told me initially. He was partially correct, which is the nature of oral history. In a nutshell, I realized that Louvenia Hunter was Grandpa Bill Reed's niece, his sister's daughter, and not his sister. Prior to marrying Allen Hunter, Louvenia was in the household of her parents, Dave & Mary Pratt, who were both from South Carolina. My Mom remembers the Hunters (Louvenia's children) as being her cousins. So the dots connected with Louvenia.

But what about Aunt Hattie Whiting? When I found Aunt Hattie in the censuses and marriage records, I became even more confused! I discovered that her maiden name was Edwards and that she was born in 1866 in Mississippi. I found her in her parents' household in 1880, before she married Sam Whiting in 1885. Her parents were Prince & Leanna Edwards. No one was from South Carolina. If someone is to be Grandpa Bill's sister, she had to have been born in South Carolina, too.

To make things even more confusing, other family elders corroborated what Cousin Ike said. One family elder recalled that Sam & Hattie Edwards Whiting's two children, Admira & Prince Whiting, were first cousins to my grandfather Simpson Reed and his siblings. What? How could that be? It could not be on Grandpa Bill's side. Hattie's siblings, Jeff, Bly, and Miles Edwards, were also considered to be "close family," according to Cousin Ike. So I began to speculate that the connection was truly on Grandma Sarah's side. Aunt Hattie's mother, Leanna Edwards, was born in Maryland, according to the 1880 census. No one in my family came from Maryland. North Carolina was consistently reported as the birthplace of Grandma Sarah's mother, Polly Partee (born c. 1832). So that left Aunt Hattie’s father, Prince Edwards.

In the 1880 Panola County census, Prince Edwards’ age was reported as 40 years old. Grandma Sarah was around 27 or 28 years old then. What is the connection? I wondered this for over 20 years. It didn’t dawn on me then that perhaps Prince Edwards may have been closer to 50, rather than 40. A rule in genealogy, especially African-American genealogy, is to never consider the reported ages in the census records as the absolute truth. Many formerly enslaved African Americans did not know their exact birthdates.

Part 2: My “Maury Povich Moment”

Now, let’s fast forward 21 years later, to June 25, 2015. DNA technology has entered the scene, and millions of people have utilized DNA technology via 23andMe, Family Tree DNA, AncestryDNA, and other DNA companies to tell them something about their ancestry. One of those persons is Kemberly Edwards-Morris, Ph.D of Atlanta. Her family is from Oklahoma. She is a new DNA match in my mother, aunt, and uncle’s GEDmatch databases. My uncle John Reed is presently her highest DNA match, at 87.1 cM across 4 segments (76.3 cM when performing an one-to-one comparison), with an estimated MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) of 3.7 generations back. Not only that, their paternal first cousin’s granddaughter Caronde Puryear is Kemberly’s third highest DNA match in GEDmatch, sharing 59.5 cM across 3 segments. Therefore, our connection to Kemberly is via my grandfather, Simpson Reed.


I sent an e-mail to Kemberly introducing myself. I also explained that she is related to my maternal grandfather. She responded excitingly within an hour and included a link to her family tree on ancestry.com. In her response, she explained that her only link to Mississippi was via her paternal Edwards family, who left Panola County, Mississippi and eventually migrated to Oklahoma. My heart started pounding! Then, I clicked on her family tree. My heart skipped a beat when I noticed that her great-great-great-grandfather was Peter Edwards!

Why is Peter Edwards so important?  In the 1870 census, Prince Edwards' two oldest children, Harriett and Prince Jr., were in Peter's household. Perhaps Peter and his wife were babysitting when the census-taker came by in 1870, and the census-taker recorded them in Peter's household. In 1880, Harriet and Prince Jr. were in the household of their parents, Prince & Leanna Edwards, as well as other younger siblings. Harriet was Aunt Hattie Edwards Whiting. Prince and Peter appeared to have been brothers. Then, as I thought about it more and re-analyzed everything, a light bulb went off. In my mind I heard Maury Povich’s voice saying, “In the case of baby Sarah Partee, Prince Edwards, DNA says that you ARE the father!” lol Everything began to make sense after 20 years! Hattie and Grandma Sarah were half-sisters! That’s why Cousin Ike had claimed her as a “sister,” but he was apparently confused about whose sister she was. So indeed, Hattie’s children, Admira & Prince Whiting, would have been my grandfather’s first cousins, like the elders had claimed. They were right all along!

Part 3: Cousins Everywhere, Even in Alberta, Canada!


My excited newfound cousin Kemberly further communicated more about the history of her Edwards Family branch. Peter Edwards, his second wife Catherine, and his 12 children (Isaac, Patrick, John, Jeff, Peter, Katie, Henry, Lucy, Jerry, Paul, Silas, and Moses) left the Como and Sardis area of Panola County after 1880 and spent some time in Quitman County, in the Mississippi Delta, near the towns of Sledge and Maston. Even Uncle Prince Edwards, Jr. followed them to Quitman County, where I found him in the 1900 census with his wife and children.  Around 1907, scores of Edwards then left Mississippi and settled in Lincoln County, Oklahoma, in the communities of Wellston, Wewoka, and Lima. Cousin Kemberly further shared that the Edwards Family Reunion, which is held every two years, generates an attendance of 200-500 people! They are preparing for their 2015 reunion in Chicago this month. This is their website: http://edwardsfamreunion.com/.

Kemberly also relayed that there are a lot of black Edwards in Alberta, Canada. I then discovered through Internet sites that Peter’s grandson, Jefferson Edwards, spurned a migration of about 200 African Americans from Lincoln County, Oklahoma to an area outside of Edmonton, Canada in 1910-1911. From Edmonton, Jefferson walked a hundred miles north and staked a homestead east of Athabasca (source). He soon married his sweetheart, Martha Murphy, and the couple were two of the first settlers in the black settlement known as "Amber Valley". He was only 21 years old. They had settled in Amber Valley because Oklahoma Black farmers had been denied the same rights as others. They found the laws in Oklahoma to be more restrictive regarding Black rights (source). This was another “mental light bulb flashing” moment because the following new DNA match from Canada appeared in my Mom, aunt, and uncle’s relative database in 23andMe over a month ago! She lists Edwards as one of her surnames! She shares the most DNA with my aunt at 62 cM (0.83%) across 2 segments, with a predicted relationship of 3rd cousins. That’s fairly close kin, in my opinion!



Is Sandra a descendant of Jefferson Edwards? Presently, that question remains unanswered, as I wait for her to respond to my message. Based on my and others’ experiences, the wait could be days, months, unfortunately several years, or never. Hopefully, she will eventually respond. Nonetheless, I learned that Jefferson and Martha had 10 children, seven boys and three girls. He died in 1979, at the age of 90. He is remembered as a proud Canadian citizen who exemplified the strong spirit of the Black pioneers who settled the Canadian West. More about the Alberta, Canada Edwards Family can be read in this Alberta Council on Aging newsletter, ACA News Winter 2014.

Update (7/2/15): Sandra saw this post and confirmed that Jefferson Edwards is her grandfather! Yeah!

Part 4: Is Ogba(r) my “Kunte Kinte”??

Another reason why all of this is so shocking for me is because I have been aware of the Edwards Family of Panola County for a long time. My maternal grandmother’s oldest sister, Mae Ella Davis (1899-1975), married Johnny Edwards; they and their children left Como, Mississippi and moved to Benton Harbor, Michigan. Mom and her siblings have fond memories of visiting Uncle Johnny & Aunt Mae Ella Edwards. Uncle Johnny’s paternal grandfather, Jerry Edwards, is believed to be a brother to Prince and Peter Edwards!

In 2011, I learned a lot about the Edwards Family History from my cousin, Dr. Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar, never knowing until now that this is my family, too. Cousin Jeffrey explained to me why he changed his surname to Ogbar. You see, he had started researching the Edwards Family History some years ago. He was very fortunate to gain some invaluable oral history notes from his great-uncle, who had interviewed elderly relatives back in the 1970s. According to those elders, the father of Jeffrey’s great-great-grandfather Jerry Edwards was an African who was given the name Luke. He told his family that his real name was Ogba(r) Ogumba (or Agba Akumba). Cousin Jeffrey changed his surname to reflect his African roots. According to Cousin Jeffrey, geneticist Dr. Rick Kittles' analysis linked a male Edwards' Y-DNA to the Akan people of Ghana. The oral history also posits that the slave-owner, William Edwards Sr., purchased Luke off a slave ship in Virginia and transported him to Mississippi. Census records show that they were in Tennessee for at least two decades before coming to Panola County, Mississippi around 1837. Also, according to the oral history that Cousin Jeffrey was able to garner, Luke's wife was named Reedia (or Rita), with whom he had at least six sons.

We are trying to figure out who all of those sons were. Naming patterns strongly suggest that there may have been at least 8 sons: Jerry, Peter, Prince, York, Monroe, Jeffrey/Jeff/Jefferson, Jack, and Luke. Panola County census records show that there was indeed someone named Luke Edwards living in the vicinity up until after 1900. He was born around 1815/1817 in Tennessee. My theory is that this Luke was probably Luke Junior. The 1850 Panola County slave schedule shows that William Edwards’ oldest male slave in 1850 was a 60-year-old black male (born c. 1790). Of course, his age was estimated. We wonder if this elder male was Luke Senior [a.k.a. Ogba(r) Ogumba]? Is he truly my great-great-great-grandfather?!? We have so much to figure out! Documents to prove our theories are currently being sought. Also, I think that further DNA testing will help solve the case as well. Nonetheless, all of this has been overwhelming but in a great way!

Last week, I was able to confirm that William Edwards Sr. was indeed the slave-owner. He died on Oct. 2, 1855, in Panola County, at the age of 75. Interestingly, his plantation wasn’t far from Squire B. Partee’s plantation, and he and Squire Partee are both buried at Fredonia Church Cemetery, eight miles east of Como. I was fortunate to find his estate file on FamilySearch.org, and the names of those 8 Edwards men were inventoried, including my Prince! Yes, it was another “Carlton Banks” dance moment for me. lol


The Slave Inventory of William Edwards’ Estate
December 15, 1855, Panola County, Mississippi (Source)


William Edwards’ gravestone at Fredonia Church Cemetery, Panola County, Mississippi
(Source: Find A Grave)


Me and Cousin Dr. Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar; Taken at the Tupac Amaru Shakur Collection Conference
Robert W. Woodruff Library – Atlanta University Center, Sept. 2012

Saturday, June 20, 2015

Striking Gold with Freedmen’s Bureau Records on Father’s Day Weekend

 

Yesterday was a great day twofold, and the focus was Freedmen's Bureau Records. First, in a press conference, FamilySearch.org announced the Freedmen’s Bureau Project, which proposes to digitize 1.5 million handwritten records about former slaves and make them available for free online on a new website called discoverfreedmen.org. They will also launch a nationwide volunteer effort to make the records searchable by indexing them by 2016. This phenomenal project is a partnership between FamilySearch, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, the Afro-American Historical & Genealogical Society (AAHGS), and the California African American Museum. See Angela Walton-Raji’s blog post to learn more about the significance of these records. Alice Harris, the president of AAHGS - Central Maryland Chapter, excitingly expressed, “This is a big deal!”

Indeed, this is a big deal, and yesterday’s findings was a big indication that many researchers, especially researchers of African-American roots, can expect many discoveries about their family history from these records. You see, after hearing about the press conference, I decided to browse through the Freedmen’s Bureau Records that FamilySearch.org has already digitized for the state of Mississippi. These online records are Mississippi, Freedmen's Bureau Field Office Records, 1865-1872 that can be accessed HERE. I decided to browse through the Vicksburg records first because I had paternal ancestors who lived near Vicksburg in Warren County during and after slavery. More specifically, I looked at the record set entitled Vicksburg (agent for payment of bounties). In those records I saw the name JOHN BASS. My heart skipped a beat!

For a long time, I have always wondered if my father’s great-grandfather, John Bass, who was also known as Jack or Jackson Bass, had fought in the Civil War. But I had no documental proof and no oral history about him, even though a “John Bass” was in the Soldiers and Sailors Database as having fought with the 49th Regiment of the U.S. Colored Infantry. Interestingly, this regiment was heavily active in the Vicksburg area. Was this just a coincidence? Over the past few years, I have been fortunate to unearth more details about Grandpa John “Jack” Bass, and these details include the following:

·         John Bass was born around 1845 in Northampton County, North Carolina;
·         He was born on William Britton’s farm, but legally owned by Mrs. Elizabeth (Bass) Bass of Hinds County, Mississippi;
·         He, his mother Beady Bass, siblings, two maternal uncles, his maternal grandmother, and his great-grandmother were held by a legal trust set forth by the 1830 will of his mother’s first enslaver, Council Bass. Read “Four Generations of Enslaved Ancestors Held By One Trust” for more details about this huge finding;
·         He, his mother Beady Bass, and family members were transported to Jackson, Mississippi in or around 1849, after Elizabeth Bass petitioned the Northampton County, N.C. Court to transport her “legacy” to Mississippi, where she had been residing for at least 15 years;
·         His father, Thomas Bowden, was enslaved by a neighbor, Lemuel Bowden, and remained in North Carolina;
·         He married my great-great-grandmother, Frances Ann Morris, in 1869 in Warren County, Mississippi. She and her family had been enslaved on LaGrange Plantation owned by Col. John Hebron in Warren County;
·         He worked for Col. John Hebron’s son-in-law, Daniel Cameron, in 1871;
·         He filled out a Freedman’s Bank application on January 16, 1871 in Vicksburg. A scan of that application can be seen in this post.
·         He was able to read and write. He signed his own name on his Freedman’s Bank application, and the 1870 and 1880 censuses also indicated that he could read and write.
·         He died around 1885 in Warren County, Mississippi.

In those available Freedmen’s Bureau records on FamilySearch,org, I clicked on “Roll 62, Applications for bounties, A-M, Sep 1868-Mar 1872” and decided to scroll through the applications. Lo and behold, I found the following one for John Bass! Again, my heart skipped a beat. Is this my John Bass? Well, let’s compare the aforementioned details about him with the handwritten details from this record. The following record is also dated the same day that he filled out a Freedman’s Bank application – January 16, 1871!


1871 Bounty Application (source)

·         John Bass, Corpl, I, 49, USCI (which means Corporal, Company I, 49th Regiment of the U.S. Colored Infantry)
·         Lives on Col. Hebron’s Plantation on Jackson Road about 8 miles from city (Vicksburg)
·         Is about 24
·         Was born N.C. (North Carolina)
·         Enlisted at Milliken’s Bend after Vicksburg S., Capt. Griffith (I assume “S” means “siege”.)
·         Is identified by J.H. Parker and is believed to be OK
·         Cert. 538955. Amt. $254.42
·         Fees 12.50   $241.42
·         Was mustered in before the surrender of Vicksburg
·         No Discharge; lost his discharge on the boat going to Sunnyside Ldg (Landing)


His profile in the Soldiers and Sailors Database

Comparing the information to what I already knew, there is no question that this John Bass is one and the same person – my great-great-grandfather! I literally jumped out of my seat and started doing the Carlton Banks dance again. LOL! This Freedmen’s Bureau bounty application confirmed my second ancestor who fought in the Civil War, ironically during Father’s Day weekend. My first discovered Civil War ancestor was my mother’s great-grandfather, Edward Danner (1832-1876), who fought with the 59th Regiment.

So why did Grandpa John Bass and many others receive a bounty? The U.S. military employed a Federal bounty system that encouraged men to enlist, re-enlist, and to serve up to three years. From 1861 to 1865, about $750,000,000 in recruitment bounties were distributed. Congress authorized a $100 bounty in July 1861, to men enlisting for three years. When the Enrollment Act was passed on March 3, 1863, three-year enlistees received $300, and five-year recruits got $400. These amounts were divided up and paid in monthly installments with the soldiers’ regular compensation. However, African-American soldiers and their families were commonly not treated as fairly as whites, when it came to bounties. Nonetheless, Grandpa John Bass’ application stated that he received $241.42, in which he apparently deposited into a new Freedman’s Bank account. The Freedman's Savings and Trust Company was established in 1865, by an act signed by President Abraham Lincoln, with the purpose of creating an institution where formerly enslaved African Americans and their dependents could place and save their money.

Now, it is time for me to visit NARA to hopefully learn more about Grandpa John Bass and his brave service in the Civil War. Stay tuned! In the meantime, I caught the Metro today to the African-American Civil War Memorial in D.C. to find his name. Grandpa John, your accomplishments and bravery are now duly noted by your family! Happy Father’s Day from your great-great-grandson.



This re-enactor at the Memorial gave me an idea of how the soldiers were dressed.

Monday, June 8, 2015

African-American Genealogy: Unearthing Your Family’s Past, From the Present to the Civil War

 

The Black Caucus of the American Library Association (BCALA) published my article in their latest newsletter, BCALA News, Spring 2015, Volume 42 Issue 2, pp 56-60. I am reposting it here on my blog. This article answers the question, "How Do I Get Started?" You can also read it at http://www.bcala.org/Winter2015/#p=56

The late Dr. John Henrik Clarke so eloquently stated, “History is not everything, but it is a starting point. History is a clock that people use to tell their political and cultural time of day. It is a compass they use to find themselves on the map of human geography. It tells them where they are but, more importantly, what they must be.”

The words of this great historian, scholar, and educator highlight why many people, especially the descendants of enslaved Africans who were disembarked on this side of the Atlantic Ocean, should research their family histories. Genealogy is life-changing; its effects have many psychological benefits. Knowledge of self is gained by unearthing and studying the ancestors of the past. Discovering how the ancestors contributed to the larger historical picture builds self-esteem and confidence. Additionally for African Americans, genealogy elevates our curiosity level and inspires us to read and learn more facts about our African-American history that have been omitted, distorted, or scantly told in many history books.

But how do we get started? That’s a question that I now hear often. Television shows like Dr. Henry Louis Gates’ PBS series, “Finding Your Roots,” and TLC’s series, “Who Do You Think You Are,” have heightened many people’s interest in digging up their own roots.  However, these shows and others typically present the mouth-dropping findings from genealogy research, which causes many people to ask, “How did they find that out?” Therefore, the purpose of this article is to answer those questions. These steps are how many people can get started in unearthing their families’ past, going back to the Civil War era.

Converse with Your Family

First, start building your family tree based on the information you know and the information you can garner from family members.  Blank family pedigree charts or family trees can be obtained from the Internet. Interview the older generations first. Record the names, dates, and places where your ancestors lived. Note any famous family stories. A beginner may be able to go back several generations in his family tree just from interviewing or conversing with parents, grandparents, aunts, great-aunts, great-uncles, cousins, and other relatives or even elder friends of the family. Some people may encounter family members who do not like to discuss the past. They will say, “Honey, let sleeping dogs lie.” Don’t worry. Hopefully, other family members may be willing to recall the past. Filling out your family tree or pedigree chart helps you to decide which family lines you want to research first.

Never rely on your mind to retain the information being relayed to you. At the very least, be equipped with a notebook and pencil. Advances in technology have allowed even our smart phones to be great recording devices. The key is to record the family information as it is being told. Therefore, choose the recording device that works best for you. Also, you can find numerous Internet articles about effective interviewing techniques. But one technique that has always generated great results for me is to just relax and generate conversations about the family elder’s young days rather than continually asking specific questions, like a news reporter. Allow the elders to talk, if they are willing, and sit back and listen, patiently. Pepper the conversation with great questions to get as much information as possible in a relaxed setting. Also, develop a rapport with older family members so that you will be able to reach out to them more as you travel on your genealogical journey. Keep in touch with them. Send them birthday cards or holiday greetings. As they become more comfortable with you, they will share more about the past. This is important because as you begin to research your family roots in the records, more questions will surface.

Gather Existing Records

Invaluable records could be right there, either in your house, your parents’ house, or in the possession of a grandparent, aunt, uncle, or cousin. You may stumble on a historical treasure trove by scavenging in basements, closets, dresser drawers, attics, trunks, file cabinets, and other places where old important papers are kept.  These records may contain genealogical information that will aid in your research.  These records include but are not limited to birth records, obituaries, newspaper clippings, wills, legal papers, old family papers that consist of divorce records, insurance papers, membership cards, military discharge papers, property deeds, and any documents with names and dates, as well as a family Bible, photographs, old photograph albums, school yearbooks, old church programs, old scrapbooks, etc. Old family obituaries are especially helpful because they provide names of deceased and living family members and the names of cemeteries where family members are buried. Your genealogical journey should also include a visit to those family cemeteries to gather names and data from tombstones.


Research and Study Federal Census Records

Census records are the most valuable resource and the nation’s largest record set for genealogy research. A federal census of the nation’s population was authorized and taken every ten years, from 1790 to the present day.  The plethora of data recorded in the census records allow researchers to capture a unique snapshot of their ancestors’ lives and the communities where they dwelled. This valuable data include but are not limited to the following: the heads of households, the people in the households and the relationship to the heads of households, the sex, race, age, and marital status of everyone, the number of years married, the age when first married, the place of birth, the father and mother’s places of birth, occupation, etc. The recorded information varies per census. However, for African-American research, one must rely on the censuses taken after 1860, unless your ancestors were free people of color. The names of all free people of color were included in the 1850 and 1860 census.

Armed with names, dates, and places, head to the place that houses census records. Advances in technology within recent years have allowed people to access census online from sites like Ancestry.com, FamilySearch.org, CensusRecords.com, and others. The most popular site, Ancestry.com, requires a fee-based subscription. However, many main city libraries allow library card-holding patrons to access Ancestry.com and others for free. Census records are also available on microfilms at the National Archives, state archives departments, large public libraries, some major university libraries, and family history centers.

The 1940 U.S. Federal Census is the latest census that was made available to the public on April 2, 2012. Work from the known to the unknown by starting with the 1940 census and continue to the 1930, 1920, 1910, 1900, 1880, and the 1870 census. If your ancestors were free people of color, continue researching the 1850 and 1860 censuses. Unfortunately, an enormous 99 percent of the 1890 census was destroyed in a fire at the Commerce Building in Washington, D.C. in 1921.

If you are viewing microfilmed census records instead of the digital images on Ancestry.com and other sites, a soundex is available for the 1930, 1920, 1910, 1900, and 1880 censuses.  The soundex is a phonetic index that was generated based on the sound of the surname.  Each surname has a soundex code. Locate your family in the soundex first, which will tell you exactly where to find them on the county census records.  The 1880 soundex only contains families with at least one child who was 10 years old or younger. If you can't find your ancestors in the 1880 soundex, then browse through the 1880 census to locate your ancestors.

The 1870 U.S. Federal Census is very important in African-American genealogy research. It was very often the first official record that recorded former enslaved African Americans by their first and last names. This census is also crucial because it was taken just five years after slavery. Therefore, most African-American adults in the 1870 census had been enslaved just five years prior.  Many African Americans on the same 1870 census pages had likely lived together earlier as a family group on their former enslavers’ farms and plantations. As late as 1870 and further, they continued to depend upon these relationships, even though some people were not blood-related. In 1870, you may often run across other families in the area with the same last names as your ancestors. Some of them may have been blood relatives, and some were not. Elder family members may be able to determine which families were blood-related.

When researching census records, here are some key things to remember:

(1)   A lot of county boundaries changed. Researchers may often find their ancestors residing in one county for one census year and in another county the following census year, but their ancestors never moved.

(2)   When you find your family in the censuses, study that page and several pages before and after. Pay attention to their neighbors. Family members often lived close to each other. Mimicking an African village, rural African-American communities were often filled with relatives or networks of extended kin. Ask older family members about the names of the other families living near your ancestors. They may be able to identify them.

(3)   You will find many discrepancies with names, ages, birthplaces, marital statuses, etc. That is common. Many people, especially former slaves, did not know their exact birthdates. Also, if a family was absent when the census-taker visited, he often retrieved information on that family from neighbors. The neighbors likely guessed the information.   

(4)   Chances are high that your family surnames may be spelled differently in the censuses. Do not disregard people in the censuses because their surnames are spelled another way. Consider all possible spelling variants of your names.

(5)   Be cognizant of the nicknames for official names. Many people were recorded in the censuses under a nickname. If you cannot locate an ancestor under his real name, try to search for him under a nickname. Many genealogical websites have lists of nicknames and official names. Some common nickname/official name variations include Lizzie/Liza/Eliza/Betty for Elizabeth, Mollie/Polly/Mae for Mary, Jack for John, Bill for William, Hank/Hence for Henry, Peggy/Maggie for Margaret, Mattie/Pattie/Patsy for Martha, Bob for Robert, Sally for Sarah, and many more.

(6)   If you find people reported as “M” or “Mu” in the censuses, which is an abbreviation for “mulatto,” do not assume that one of their parents was White or Native American.  A lot of census-takers wrote “M” or “Mu” for a person’s race/color if that person appeared to be of mixed ancestry.  Many of them likely did not inquire about the race of the parents but made assumptions based on appearances.  Older family members may be able to verify a person’s parentage.

Search for other records

Fortunately, for African-American genealogy research, the list of other valuable resources is lengthy. I will cover some of the main records researchers should seek in their genealogical quests. These main resources include marriage records, death certificates, birth certificates, land records, military service records, newspapers, published sources, draft registration cards, court records, church records, school records, Social Security Death Index and Social Security Application form SS-5, city directories, state censuses, and many more.
   
Maiden names can be learned from marriage records.  Marriage license applications can be found for some counties. The applications often give the parents’ names. Marriage records can be obtained from county courthouses and state archive departments.  Marriage dates may be found online on sites like FamilySearch.org or Ancestry.com. On the actual marriage documents, pay attention to the names of witnesses or bondsmen; they were often family members.

Death certificates are valuable because they contain information such as the name of the spouse, the father's name, the mother's maiden name, the birthplace, the birth date, the place of burial, etc. Birth certificates give the parents’ names and the place of birth.  Those records are typically found at state vital records departments and at state archive departments. Ancestry.com and FamilySearch.org have increased their databases to include scanned death certificate for various states, including North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, Tennessee, and more.

In 1863, the United States Army began to enlist free and enslaved African-American men into regimental units known as the United States Colored Troops (USCT). Nearly 186,000 African Americans served in the USCT volunteer cavalry, artillery, and infantry units during the Civil War. If you have knowledge that an ancestor or relative may have fought in the Civil War, request copies of his pension record; they are stored at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.  The USCT service records are indexed there. The pension records of many of these brave soldiers often contain a wealth of information. If a personal visit to the National Archives is not possible, you can order pension records online via the National Archives’ website.  NATF-80 applications are used to submit an order for a soldier’s record; these applications are also now online on their website. Not all soldiers have pension records.

Once you are able to uncover names of more ancestors and family members from these vital records, plan to search for them in the census records as well. Additionally, don’t just focus on your direct ancestors. Trace collateral lines or your ancestors’ siblings. You may be able to trace back another generation by doing so, especially if you discover a parent living with an ancestor’s sibling. Also, plan a research trip to your state Archives to research more records that are specific to that state and are not online. Genealogy requires a lot of time, money, and patience, but the rewards are great and life-changing, not only for you but for members of your family. There are many stories to be told and experiences to resurrect. 

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

DNA “Begging” Letter



 

Dear DNA Relative,

I am getting ready to beg, which is something I don’t do often. You are a DNA match to me, either in FamilyTreeDNA (FTDNA), 23andMe, or AncestryDNA. Those are the three DNA tests I have taken. Guess what? There is a wonderful FREE online DNA tool called GEDmatch. You can access the site at www.GEDmatch.com. Did I mention that it is FREE! Although I have stressed its importance in other blog posts, this letter is to re-stress the importance of uploading your raw data file from any of the three aforementioned DNA companies to GEDmatch. Yes, this is indeed very very important. Therefore, please upload to GEDmatch. Pretty please!

First, I would like to briefly list a few reasons why uploading to GEDmatch is important. Secondly, I will provide some instructions on how to do so.

Reasons to Upload to GEDmatch

1.    To gain more DNA matches with others who have tested with a different company but uploaded to GEDmatch. You might even gain some high DNA matches. This is especially important for adoptees. A long lost sibling, parent, aunt or uncle may be in GEDmatch.

2.    To be able to compare your DNA to known family members in order to determine how you are related. This effective process is called triangulation. This can be performed in 23andMe and FTDNA but not in AncestryDNA. This is a good blog post that explains this process: http://blog.kittycooper.com/2015/02/triangulation-proving-a-common-ancestor/ Here’s a scenario: Let’s say that you match me in AncestryDNA. Once you upload to GEDmatch, I compare you to both of my parents and determine that you match my father. Not only that, I compare you to other known relatives and determine that you also match my father’s paternal second cousin in the same area on one of our 23 chromosomes. Then, I know that you are related to me via my paternal grandfather. We can then take a closer look at his family tree to try to determine exactly how we are related.

3.    If you have taken the AncestryDNA test, you do not even know exactly how much DNA you share with a DNA match. You only get a “confidence score,” which is not that useful, in my opinion. DNA is measured in units called centimorgans (cM). The more “cM” you share with someone, the closer the relationship, in most cases. In GEDmatch, you learn how much DNA you share with your DNA matches. You can also use ISOGG’s DNA statistics chart to determine a possible relationship. Those statistics can be seen here.

4.    You have a plethora of analysis tools in GEDmatch to learn more about your ancestry composition. You wanna see if you truly have some Native American ancestry? You can do so in GEDmatch.

5.    You can even determine if your parents are related to each other. Yes, for real. Many people did not know that they married their cousin.

6.    You can do X-chromosome comparisons in GEDmatch. You can’t do that in AncestryDNA. X-chromosome matches are revealing because X-DNA is passed down via certain lineages. This helps to determine the family connection. For further explanation, read this blog post.

These are just a few reasons why you should upload to GEDmatch. There are others, but I know that your time is very important. The reasons I just listed are the most important ones, in my opinion. Now, here’s how you can upload to GEDmatch:

Uploading your 23andMe Results to GEDmatch

1. In 23andMe, in the top right corner, click on your name and click on "Browse Raw Data."


2. Once that page opens, look underneath your name in the top right corner and click on "Download".

3. Re-enter your password and enter the answer to the secret question. Then, choose your profile. For “Data Set,” select ALL DNA.

4. Remember the spot where the raw data file is saved on your hard drive.

5. Go to www.GEDmatch.com. Register a new account. It will send a verification code to your e-mail address. 


6. Once in GEDmatch, under "Autosomal Raw Data," click on "23andMe."

7. Complete the fields. You will see an icon at the bottom where you are asked to upload your 23andMe raw data file.

8. Then, watch it do its work. Do not close your browser while it is processing.

9. Once it is done, you can do certain things in GEDmatch, like One-to-One Comparison, but not everything until batch processing is 100% complete. That may take several days.

Uploading your AncestryDNA Results to GEDmatch

Why reinvent the wheel? This site here explains it in clear, step-by-step directions: https://stonefamilytree.wordpress.com/2014/08/03/how-to-upload-your-ancestry-dna-test-results-to-GEDmatch/

Uploading your FamilyTreeDNA (FTDNA) Results to GEDmatch

Why reinvent the wheel? This site here explains it in clear, step-by-step directions: http://yourdnaguide.com/uploading-to-GEDmatch-from-ftdna/

Also, check out my blog post called “20 Do's and Don'ts of DNA” at http://rootsrevealed.blogspot.com/2015/01/20-dos-and-donts-of-dna.html

See…it’s that simple! Please please please allocate some time to upload to GEDmatch. Yes, I am begging. Another world of DNA matches and exciting information awaits you! Why not take advantage of it? Thank you!

Sincerely,

Your Hopeful DNA Relative